In the XIII century, King Henry III tried to revive the tradition of the Round Table

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In the XIII century, King Henry III tried to revive the tradition of the Round Table Henry III (1207 – 1272) was the King of England from 1216 till his death. During 24 years (1234–58) he had effective control of the government, but displayed such indifference to traditions that the barons finally forced him to agree to a series of major reforms, known as the Provisions of Oxford (1258). The fact: one of the reformist ideas of Henry to regenerate the tradition of round tables from the legends about King Arthur. Surely this project failed. Although Henry was generous and cultured, he lacked the capability to rule effectively. In diplomatic and military affairs he proved to be arrogant, cowardly, ambitious and even impractical.

The elder son and testator of King John (ruled 1199–1216), Henry III was 9 years old when his father died and he became in his turn the king. At those times, London and much of territories of eastern England were in the hands of opposite barons led by Prince Louis (later he became King Louis VIII of France), son of the King of France Philip II Augustus. By 1217 barons had been defeated and Louis was forced to take back from England. After it domination of France empowered, because of presence of two ambitious Frenchmen, Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux. They dominated Henry’s regime until the barons brought about their expulsion in 1234. That event marked the beginning of Henry’s personal rule.

The new breach between the King and his barons began in 1237, when the barons manifested abuse at the impact exercised over the government by Henry’s Savoyard relatives. The marriage organized by Henry between his sister, Eleanor (1238), and his young French favourite, Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, increased foreign influence and further awaken the hostility of nobility. In 1242 Henry’s half brothers involved him in a costly and disastrous military campaign in France. The nobility then began to demand a voice in electing Henry’s counsellors, but the King repeatedly denied their suggestions.

Another serious political mistake of Henry was his links with Pope (Innocent IV, that happened in the second period of his rule), offering to finance papal wars. It led to the escalation of the inner political crisis that continued till the death on Henry. After the King’s death, his son, Edward ascended the throne as King Edward I.

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